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ORGANISATIONS AND BEHAVIOUR

Running Head: Organizations and Behavior Organizations and Behavior s A: Different Types of Leadership and their Impact on ChangeLaissez- Faire:This style requires no leadership and supervision skills from the managers. In it, highly trained and competitive employees work without manager’s supervision.In the period of change, this style does not motivate employees. Employees do not appreciate change and usually rejects it.Autocratic:In this style, total authority lies with the manager. He has the sole power of making decision without any participation from other employees. This style de-motivates the employees in the period of change, as they have no part in the change procedure.Participative:This is a democratic style where involvement of employees to decision making is valued. However, the power of decision lies with the leader only. This is a highly motivating style for acceptance of change as it boost employees moral due to their participation. Transactional:A highly structured leadership requires the employees to follow all the established procedures. It is highly suited for environment with safety and risk issues. This style does not much for motivating employees in a period of change as it is all about following rules and procedures. Transformational:It involves high level of communication from the leader to the employees. It is about inspiring and motivating the employees to achieve the big picture. It motivates the employees in a period of change due to high level of communication involved. B: Content Theory of MotivationContent theories of motivation are the theories (Thompson, 1996, pp.13) that deal with the factor of what that motivates people. It explains why human needs change with time but not how. These theories help the managers to understand the specific factors that would motivate the employee to perform better. Content Theories includes:Two Factor Theory:This theory describes two kinds of factors that affect motivation, they areHygiene Factors, which do not add to motivation but lack of which leads to dissatisfaction Motivators, the presence of which motivates employees but absence do not lead to dissatisfaction (Thompson, 1996, pp.13). Hierarchy of Need Theory:This theory indicates a hierarchy of human needs where satisfaction of lower level need motivates individual to achieve higher-level need (Thompson, 1996, pp.10). The hierarchy includes following needs:PsychologicalSafetyBelongingSelf EsteemSelf-ActualizationTheory X and Theory Y:This theory state that managers believe in either Theory X that employees dislike work and tend to avoid it or in Theory Y that employees appreciate work and are self motivated (Goldsmith School of Business, n.d).ERG Theory:It is a simplified form of Need Hierarchy Theory with needs classified in two three major categories.Existence includes basic psychological needs like food, shelter and safety.Relatedness includes the emotional needs to belong and be loved.Growth includes need for achievement and success with respect from other (Zang, n.d).C: Pay is the Most Important of Hygiene FactorHerzberg, in his two-factor theory described hygiene factors as the factors which do not motivate employees for better performance at work. however, their absence can lead to dissatisfaction from the work. In the hygiene factor, he placed factors like pay, job satisfaction, work environment and company policies (Thompson, 1996, p.13-14). It would be correct to consider pay as the most important of hygiene factor. An individual works to earn a living and finance his needs so money is the main aim behind an individual job. Among the entire hygiene factors, all are negotiable for an individual besides his pay. Usually, an individual in need of money would not mind working in an unstable work environment without any job satisfaction if the money is right for him. However, it varies with the individual, as an individual who works with the perspective to learn like an internee would place more importance to job satisfaction then pay. Therefore, importance of factors is variable with the individual concerned but generally, pay is the most important hygiene factor. Pay is definitely an important tool for managers to increase motivation however. it is a very short-term tool and does not guarantee long-term motivation. This is because with the passage of time it becomes a hygiene factor (First Level Leadership, 2009).ReferencesFirst Level Leadership. 2009. Herzberg Questions, And What Salary Do You Ask to Stay Motivated? First Level Leadership. Retrieved on 6 July, 2012. Goldsmith School of Business. n.d. Motivation. Goldsmith School of Business. Retrieved on 6 July, 2012. http://goldsmithibs.com/resources/free/Motivation/notes/Summary%20-%20Motivation.pdfhttp://www.first-level-leadership.com/Menu/Hezberg/42Ozgur, Zang. n.d. A Brief Introduction to Motivation Theories. Ozgur Zang- Business Management. Retrieved on 6 July, 2012: http://ozgurzan.com/management/management-theories/theories-about-motivation/Thompson, David. 1996. Motivating Other. Eye on Education.

ORGANISATIONS AND BEHAVIOUR