Osteoporosis is a chronic progressive metabolic disease of the bone characterized by low bone mass and micro-architectural deterioration of the tissue of the bones (Serota and Lane, 2006). It affects 16% of women and 7% of men above 50 years of age (Tenenhouse et al, qtd. in Targownik, Lix and Metge, 2008). The most dreaded complication of fall in this age group of people is hip fracture.Burt is 68 years old. Aging is a natural physiological process and there are many changes which occur in the various organs of the body. The common health problems frequently encountered in the elderly are altered response to medication, altered nutritional status, urinary incontinence, urine retention, fecal incontinence, pressure ulcers, mood disorders, dizziness, dementia and functional impairment, immobility and impaired gait (Nettina, 2006). Elderly people are more prone to falls and fractures, cognitive dysfunction, postural hypotension, electrolyte disorders, cardiac failure and polypharmacy.Burt needs to be given several medications because of his health condition. Pharmacokinetics of the aged is different and hence the effects of the drugs are more. The factors which contribute to altered pharmacokinetics are decrease in lean body mass and total body weight, increased percentage of body fat, decreased protein binding of drugs, increase in volume of distribution for lipophilic drugs that penetrate the central nervous system, decline in the metabolic capacity of the liver, decreased liver mass and hepatic blood flow, decreased renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate. There may also be changes in the receptor numbers, affinity, and post receptor cellular effects. Along with these, there are also changes in the homeostatic mechanisms (Tregaskis and Stevenson, 1990).Dementia is a haunting problem amongst elderly who frequently get admitted to acute care settings for other health problems. Due to dementia, proper treatment is difficult to institute.
Nursing Cancer Patient Case