A project is typically a collaborative enterprise (Blum, 1986). It usually involves research that is conducted frequently, involving a carefully planned research design that sets to achieve a given aim. Projects are social systems within organizations that are constituted by teams to accomplish given tasks within a given period of time (Spottydog, 2003). A project is usually conducted by school-going and university students or by organizations. For school going students, it may require the students to undertake fact-finding and analysis from either secondary sources of information or from empirically gathering data (Yuan-Yi, 2001). The final output is usually in the form of a dissertation. The dissertation will contain sections of the whole projects inception, inquiry methods analysis, finding conclusions and most at times would require them to make suitable recommendations (Konecny, 2006). On the other hand for organizations, it will consist of a temporary task that is undertaken in order to create products that are unique and satisfactory services many at times in pursuit of satisfying the growing and changing demands of consumers such as the case of ARM mentioned above. (Morris Peter, 2007). Therefore the objectives of the given project will determine the target status at the end of the whole project. This will be necessary to achieve the planned benefits or the aims of the project. For example, in many countries engineering projects are specifically defined by legislation and requires that any engineering project should be carried out by only the registered engineers and companies for constructing buildings, industrial facilities, and transportation of infrastructure and such like other duties (Pinto, 2001). In such cases, the project scope will be well defined within a contract from owners of the project and the engineering and construction companies. This kind of project has two major phases which are design and construction. The design phase involves drawing and calculations and the next which is the final phase will be to send the project plan to a developer who will do the construction work (Archibald, 1992). A project in its self if a process and any process usually involves a set of interrelated actions and activities that have to be carried out in order to achieve a pre-specified result or services. The process will be characterized by the type of inputs, tools and techniques apply and the resultant outputs (Gareis, 2010). For ARM to make its projects successful it always involves a team so as to ensure successful completion. The first and most important thing is to develop a project management plan. This will provide the primary source of information on how a project will be planned for, executed and completed (Chapman, 2003). The whole ARM project team will have to determine the inputs and the desired outputs. The inputs basically involve defining the project charter. review the enterprise environmental factors and the organizational process assets. From these factors, expert judgment is generated and gives the whole management plan (Chen, 1997). When we refer to a project as being temporary then we mean that it is a process that has got a definite beginning and a definite end (Lundin, 2011). This also does not imply that the project is taking a short duration of time.
Managing High Technology Programs and Projects