A theory is an explanation or model based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning, especially one that has been tested and confirmed as a general principle helping to explain and predict natural phenomena. (Quoted in fsteiger.com) Theories are articulated and modified for the exploration of facts and realities on the foundation of deep observation, adequate evidence and critical examination of the available information. The vehicle of all understanding, Turner submits, in science is theory. The theory is a way of answering the questions. (2006, p. 2) Hence, theories establish principles and laws and add to the knowledge of scholars, intellectuals, philosophers and the masses as well regarding multiple disciplines and issues at large. Thus, theories are equally important in natural and social sciences for the establishment of various concepts and parameters in the light of which further developments are made in some specific field of knowledge. Though both natural and human sciences consist of theories, yet the difference in both these sciences can also be witnessed in their theoretical frameworks. Pure or natural sciences concentrate upon examination of natural, organic, inorganic, physical and nonhuman laws, rules and aspects related to the earth and universe. On the other hand, social or human sciences study the existing social, cultural, religious and psychological phenomena on scientific grounds. Physics, chemistry, biology, astronomy, engineering, aeronautical science, and pharmacy, etc come under the definition of natural sciences, while sociology, theology, economics, history, psychology, philosophy and others are called human sciences. Though natural and human sciences appear to be entirely different from one another, yet they maintain many similarities and commonalities between them. almost the same is the case with the theoretical frameworks related to both these forms of science.
Biological and Social Theories of Evolution