Indirect bullying – also known as relational/social aggression – is less obvious and less visible (spreading rumors/gossip, and exclusion/rejection from a group). and cyberbullying – uses the Internet, cellular phones, or other technology to harm individuals. (Lamb et al. 2009, p. 356-57. Ontario Ministry of Education 2007, p.3)Bully children are impulsive, domineering, and inconsiderate (Bullock 2002, p. 130), displaying "aggressive personality pattern combined with physical strength" (Olweus 1991, p. 425). The bully’s self-regard is an inflated self-esteem, and a powerful/superior feeling over others. whereas, the victim’s appears weaker, passive, insecure, and anxious, and reacts by crying or withdrawing (Bullock 2002, p. 130). Van Cleave Davis (2006) revealed, children with special health care needs were more likely to be victims, while children with chronic behavioral, emotional, or developmental problems were more likely to be bullies or both (cited in Lamb et al, 2009, p. 357).Common indicators of bullying are physical symptoms – headaches, stomach aches. psychosomatic symptoms – difficulty sleeping, bed-wetting. depressive symptoms. anxiety symptoms. poor school performance – low grades, dropping out. and suicidal tendencies. Specific indicators for bullies are drug/substance use. indifference to other’s feelings. aggressiveness or being manipulative with siblings, parents, and others or with animals. and possessing unexplained items or extra money. while for the victims are absenteeism, refusal to attend school, drop in school motivation. losing items, needing money, being hungry after school, injuries, bruises, damaged clothing, broken items, and threatens to hurt self or others. (Lamb et al. 2009, p. 358) These damaging symptoms warrant intervention, especially so bullying (commonly starts in childhood), if disregarded may result in more frequent and severe bullying behaviors that may persist and worsen to adulthood.
Understanding Children’s Behavior