A paradigm can have various meanings. It refers to your basic beliefs and your approach to the world which affects the way you define your research and how you collect and analyse data (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, p. 47). The research approaches that can be used in studies comprise of a mixture of both the phenomenological paradigm which is also referred to as a qualitative approaches and the positivistic paradigm also known as the quantitative approach (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, p. 47). Phenomenological is based on the word phenomenon which means a fact that happened or an event that was witnessed. With the phenomenological approach, the focus is on understanding the human behaviour from the participant’s own frame of reference (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, p. 53). As this approach is related to an event within a context of time and place, the aim is to investigate an event by carrying out your own research to construct a new theory to explain the phenomenon (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, pp. 56-57) or use existing theory. The aim and focus with this approach is on the quality and depth of data (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, pp. 56-57). With the positivistic paradigm, the emphasis is on using measurement to find out the relationships between facts and causes of the phenomenon. This is an essential element of the research process under this paradigm (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, p. 57). This approach is useful when there is a need to conduct a statistical analysis (Collis amp. Hussey, 2003, p. 56).
The Concept of the Validity of Qualitative