Policymaking is not just about its outcome but most importantly the process by which it has been made, because the crux of public policymaking is the constant interaction among its key players: the institutions that draw the structures and rules which govern the making of decisions. the interest as represented by a group and individual stakeholders who would gain or lose in the policy. and ideas that would give logic to the policy (John, 1998, cited in Overseas Development Institute, 2007, p.1. Kirst, Meister Rowley,___, pp.248-249. Gormley, __, p.100).” This interaction of its key players in many ways has resulted in the policy, which may be beneficial to some but burdensome to others.Public policymaking in itself is normally complex, as it goes through five tedious stages: “agenda-setting, policy formulation, decision making, implementation, and evaluation (Fischer, Miller, Sidney, 2007, p. 43)” – of which the agenda-setting is seen the most crucial stage (Thomas Dye, as cited in Gertson, 2004, p. 52) by which policymakers critically take on specific issues (Kirst, Meier, Rowley, 2007, p.247) involving hundreds of actors widely differentiated by their backgrounds, goals, perspectives, preferences, etc.The complexity of public policymaking is most evident in a democracy, as people are granted their constitutional rights to participate and to be heard in the policymaking process, much more in a democracy as big as the Federal government of the United States of America, not only because it is understandably laden with extensive issues, but also because it is surrounded with many varied aggressive players competing for their stakes, believing that theirs is what merits the government attention. Needless to say, you have 50 states to consider.The hugeness of the US government has also adversely affected policymaking in a way that the US Congress with 435 Representatives and 100 Senators (Chambers, 2009, par. 24) is too heavy to act on time, consequently, to function effectively, that it “divided itself into tens of committees and hundreds of subcommittees, all more or less independent of Congress as a whole.
The Bureaucracy and Public Policymaking in the United States