Initially, child abuse and neglect were referred to as battered baby syndrome. Later on, professionals who treated cases of child abuse started to use the less emotive term of no accidental injury to refer to child abuse (Hobbs, Hanks and Wynne, 1999).Child neglect and abuse are constituents of any action or inaction have taken by an institution, individual or processes which have the adverse effect of causing direct harm to children or inhibiting their prospects of healthy and safe development into their adulthood (Hobbs, Hanks and Wynne, 1999).Physical child abuse is causing injury to a child as a result of physical aggression on the part of the child’s parents or guardians. The action is still considered as physical abuse even if the actions of the parent or guardian were clearly not done intentionally. Beating, punching, hair pulling, burning with cigarettes, shaking or any form of severe physical punishment may result in causing the death of the child or somehow risk causing serious harm to the child. Physical Punishment is not termed as physical abuse since it is done with the main intention of inflicting bodily pain, but not an injury (Martin and Fabes, 2009).Child sexual abuse is termed as any sexual activity occurring between a child and an adult. This may include actions such as rape, incest, sodomy, oral sex, and penetration. The child can never be blamed for child sexual abuse, as it is unable to comprehend what is happening and only ends up falling victim because of the actions of a child sexual abuse perpetrator (Martin and Fabes, 2009).Emotional Child abuse is considered as any behavior, attitude or inaction that impedes a child’s social development or mental health. Its form ranges from actions such as verbal abuse, taunting to other extreme forms of punishment (Martin and Fabes, 2009).Child neglect is more prevalent than both child physical and sexual abuse combined.
Selecting and Model and Anticipating Barriers Application