However, there are arguments and observations to the effect that government policy on education is unfairly crafted along ethnic, racial and class lines so that there are an inordinate racial, class and ethnic distribution of students in learning institutions. This matter is dissected further by considering three journal articles: The Black-White Test Score Gap by George Farkas, Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Educational Achievement and Attainment by Grace Kao and Jennifer S. Thompson, and Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States, by Michael Hout. Summary In Social and Economic Returns to College Education in the United States, Michael Hout seeks to establish the manner in which social stratification, mobility, inequality, and extension of socioeconomic opportunities form a complex interplay in selection and credentialing. Hout is categorical that education merges strongly with socioeconomic outcomes such as economic success, family and health stability, and even social connection. Because of this, Hout analyses the theories of stratification to determine whether education is that benevolent as it is always depicted. This is especially in regard to the fact that education also affects groups and individuals who are less likely to access or pursue college education more than it affects traditional college students. In the article by Grace Kao and Jennifer Thompson titled Racial and Ethnic Stratification in Educational Achievement and Attainment, variations in ethnicity, race, and immigration, and how these factors correlate with educational achievement form the object of study. Kao and Thompson observe that since 2000, the population of the youth hailing from minority groups in America has been gradually increasing and this makes the study and debate inevitable. Kao and Thompson use empirical research results on immigrant, race and ethnic differences in educational achievement and attainment, and attempt to establish the differences therein, by using current theories. Since Kao and Thomson acknowledge persistent substantial gaps among the Hispanics, African Americans, Native Americans and other more advantaged groups such as Asian and White Americans despite the gains that have been realized in narrowing the racial gap in education, it behooves their discussion to expound on the manner in which such gaps can be sealed. George Farkas’ The Black-White Test Score Gap discusses the backdrop of the ruling of the Supreme Court in 2003 to uphold affirmative action in college admission. However, the Supreme Court ruling remains a sacrosanct part in Farkas’ study since the Supreme Court went ahead to set out an expiry date for the policy that is affirmative action. The ruling postulated that affirmative action should be faced out after 25 years since Sandra Day O’Connor and the rest of the bench surmised that 25 years from the ruling, racial segregation and the use of racial preferences will have been faced out. Based on this development, Farkas takes to establish academic performance among the different races in the US and to explain the phenomenon behind the interracial disparity in intellectual and academic performance.
Race Class Ethnicity and Education