The blockage may be attributable to conditions including atherosclerosis, coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and renal vascular hypertension. Carotid artery stenosis, venous narrowing and narrowing in dialysis fistula or grafts can also result in blockage.Patient preparation is essential. Medications, herbal supplements, recent illnesses, medical conditions and allergies should be well documented (Benson et al. 2005). This is because the procedure involves anaesthesia and iodine in the x-ray dye. Medication used especially blood thinners, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin should be reported. The procedure involves imaging using radiation. It is, therefore, essential that women be examined for pregnancy to minimize radiation exposure to the foetus. Before the procedure, patients are restricted to eat or drink except medication.The procedure involves the use of several equipment a balloon catheter, stent, sheath, wire guide and x-ray imaging equipment. The imaging procedure applies the principle of fluoroscopy to develop an angiograph (O’Grady 2002). During the procedure, the guide wire directs placement of the angioplasty balloon catheter and the vascular stent. The sheath is used for catheter exchanges during the procedure. A vascular tube is placed to allow catheter exchanges and is usually removed after the procedure by a nurse. The procedure is executed in an interventional radiology suite by an interventional radiologist.Seldinger technique is the preferred technique for percutaneous catheterization of the femoral artery. It is effective for both arterial and venous access. Although a radial approach is applicable, the femoral approach is the most preferred method. In this procedure, the ideal puncture site is the femoral artery (Berry 2004). The femoral stick is well located to avoid surgical complications. The puncture site is precisely selected to avoid complications associated with the surgical procedure.
Potential sheath removal issues