Street lighting, information technology such as papermaking and paper printing emerged during this period, effectively enhancing communication (22). The technological advancement during the period gave rise to industrialization and modernization.Political change during this period is yet another major aspect of western society modernization, where different nations discovered the need and suitability of democracy, notably after the French revolution of 1848 (30). Following this political advancement, other countries such as Italy, Germany and Britain sought political unification. This period also saw the rise of socialism, which was opposed to aristocratic and dictatorial rules (46). To avert such political revolts, the western countries worked towards enhancing human rights, abolishing slavery and establishing parliamentary and political party systems, which protected liberties (65). Social-cultural developments also occurred, sparked by the need for the society to adapt to the industrial economy (18). The lifestyles and standards of living improved, coupled with a decreased death rate due to advancement in medical technology. Labour movements emerged, seeking better working conditions and wages for workers. Thus, the housing, diet and nutrition as well as leisure for such workers and their families improved (72).In conclusion, therefore, the period between the 18th and the 19th century saw great changes in various aspects of western society take place. These changes occurred in various fronts such as the technological, political and social-cultural, paving way for modernization of the society.
Modernization of Western Society by 1914