Even though leadership and management styles have been written about much later, but research suggests that both these have been in practice throughout recorded history. Different leadership and management theories have been espoused by different authors. The concept of ‘organization culture’ has become popular since the early 1980s (Hofstede, 2005). There is a definite co-relation between culture and performance, culture and economic results, culture and sustainability, culture and strategic growth, culture and recruitment, motivation and retention of human capital, including downsizing. "Organizational culture is the key to organizational excellence… and the function of leadership is the creation and management of culture…" (Schein, 1992). Schein emphasizes that culture differentiates one organization from another and provides a sense of identity to the members. Cultures are deep-seated, pervasive, and complex and he stresses that adaptation and change are not possible without making changes that affect culture.Marriott International has always been known as an employee-oriented family atmosphere organization. The philosophy of the founder of Marriott was “Take care of Marriott people and they will take care of Marriott guests” (Cannon, 2002). They were in essence attempting to satisfy both their internal and external customers. They believe that “Hands-on managers” are absolutely vital to continuing the Marriott culture.At this point, it is essential to differentiate between leadership and management. Management has been defined as the “mental and physical effort to coordinate diverse activities to achieve desired results” (Eric, n.d.). The four management functions include planning, staffing, organizing, and controlling. Leadership on the other hand has been defined as “natural and learned ability, skill and personal characteristics to conduct interpersonal relations, which influence people to take desired actions. You lead people and you manage things, is how Pejza differentiates. Thus effective leadership requires accomplishment and influence.
Management and Leadership of Marriott International