In accordance with Parnell (2003, 16) ‘in many respects, the evidence for the existence of a strategy can permeate an organization. sharing strategic information with lower-level managers and employees may enhance both job comprehension and organizational commitment’. In other words, the introduction of a specific leadership in a particular organization could not guarantee the positive performance of the specific organization. various obstacles could intervene in the successful completion of the relevant strategy while its effects on the firm’s organizational structure could be influenced by a series of factors like the position of the firm in the international (or the local market), the culture of the organization and the leadership practices applied on the organizational activities. In fact, in the study of Rand (1999), it is noticed that ‘businesses fail because management does not have effective control of the business as management is too far removed from revenue-producing processes. visibility is nonexistent or, at best, extremely limited’ (Rand, 1999, 97). In other words, a firm’s operation could be strongly affected by the fact that the decisions of its leader are not the appropriate (taking into account the current market conditions and the position of the firm within its industry). Furthermore, in order to avoid the risks related with the lack of appropriate control over the organizational activities, a leader should proceed on the close examination of the following business activities/ sectors: ‘inputs (materials, energy, information, management, technology, facilities and labor), transformation (or conversion process) and disposition (marketing and sales)’ (Gomez et al., 2002, Ch.15). The extended reference to the decisions of leaders in modern firms is made because of the importance of these decisions for the performance of all organizations operating internationally.The current paper focuses on the leadership practices used across all organizational departments of a particular British firm, Marks and Spencer.
Leadership and Motivation of Marks and Spencer Company