independant variables"Independent and Dependent Variables Independent and Dependent Variables The quantitative telephone survey of 968 convenience-sampled individuals assessed homeownership, occupation, educational attainment, and income, as they relate to PCS, HAQ, and CDC HRQOL scores. Findings revealed that lower individual/household (P <. 0.01) and community SES measures are linked to poorer physical health outcomes, and income, specifically 2 risk factors, and 24% had >.4 (Larson et al., 2008). The quantitative questionnaire-based survey administered to 8,206 individuals aged 50 and above through non-probability sampling assessed the health status, quality of life, and well-being of older people in rural Tanzania. Findings revealed that among people aged 50 and over, having good quality of life and health status was significantly associated with being male, married and not being among the oldest old, and that increase in age increased the difficulty in performing routine activities, particularly in women (odds ratio 1.31. P >..001, 95% CI 1.15-1.50) (Mwanyangala et al, 2010). The cohort study of 2,631 low-income children in 20 large U.S. cities obtained through FFS mother survey data, medical records, and in-home longitudinal study assessed the independent influences of homelessness and doubled-up
episodes on the children’s physical and mental health, cognitive development, and health care use. Findings revealed that 9.8% of the children experienced homelessness, and 23.6% experienced doubled-up episode, but that housing status had little significant adverse effect on child physical or mental health, cognitive development, or health care use (Park, Fertig, &. Allison, 2011).
Callahan, L. F., Martin, K. R., Shreffler, J., Kumar, D., Schoster, B., Schwartz, T. A., &.
Kaufman, J. S. (May 01, 2011). Independent and combined influence of homeownership, occupation, education, income, and community poverty on physical health in persons with arthritis. Arthritis Care and Research, 63, 5, 643-653.
Haas, S. A., Krueger, P. M., &. Rohlfsen, L. (March 5, 2012). Race/Ethnic and Nativity
Disparities in Later Life Physical Performance: The Role of Health and Socioeconomic Status Over the Life Course. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 2, 238-248.
Kadam, U. T., Schellevis, F. G., Windt, D. A. W. M., Windt, D. A. W. M., Vet, H. C. W.,
Bouter, L. M., &. Croft, P. R. (January 30, 2009). Does age modify the relationship between morbidity severity and physical health in English and Dutch family practice populations?. Quality of Life Research, 18, 2, 209-220.
Larson, K., Russ, S. A., Crall, J. J., &. Halfon, N. (February 01, 2008). Influence of Multiple
Social Risks on Childrens Health. Pediatrics, 121, 2, 337-344.
Mwanyangala, M. A., Mayombana, C., Urassa, H., Charles, J., Mahutanga, C., Abdullah, S., &.
Nathan, R. (September 27, 2010). Health status and quality of life among older adults in rural Tanzania. Global Health Action, 3, 39-44.
Park, J. M., Fertig, A. R., &. Allison, P. D. (September 01, 2011). Physical and mental health,
cognitive development, and health care use by housing status of low-income young children in 20 American cities: A prospective cohort study. American Journal of Public Health, 101.