However, apart from the general comments of Durkheim regarding the potential causes of suicide, the researcher proceeds to an extensive analysis of suicide as a sociocultural phenomenon. In this context, according to Durkheim, the main types of suicide are the following four (as they are presented in Figure 1 below): a) Anomic suicide, b) Fatalistic suicide, c) Altruistic suicide and d) Egoistic suicide. The above 4 types of suicide refer to different social conditions. More specifically, the Anomic suicide is linked with ‘the moral dimension anomie which occurs when there is an imbalance of means and needs, a de-regulation in peoples’ lives, a loss of moral certainty, a loss of control or a loss of group support’ (Durkheim, 1997). The above type of suicide as described by Durkheim is closer with the fourth epidemiological factor of suicide as it has been revealed by recent studies, i.e. the suicide caused because of the prison custody. This factor can be considered as closely with the anomic suicide because it is characterized by a severe de-regulation of peoples’ lives and a loss of control which are fundamental elements of anomic suicide. Another epidemiological factor that could be possibly related to anomic suicide is the suicide caused as a result of alcohol and drug abuse. This relationship could be justified for the same reasons presented above for the fourth epidemiological factor, i.e. the prison custody. On the other hand, fatalistic suicide as part of the Durkheim’s theory on suicide should be considered as related more with the fourth epidemiological factor, i.e. the prison custody. The above assumption could be possibly explained by Durkheim’s description regarding the fatalistic suicide: it’s a suicide linked with the moral dimension and can be observed in cases that are characterized by ‘extreme regulation and unrewarding lives e.g. slaves and prisoners’ (Durkheim, 1897).
Health and Epidemiology