Most of the time, the colonies have been suppressed and oppressed by their colonizers. These harsh natures pushed the colonies to adapt and live the lifestyle of their colonizers to compete with them in all aspects of things. The traditional culture of the people has been undermined. The colonizer’s culture strongly asserts its influence to exercise control and power over the colony. Thus, the interaction that rises from such a clash of cultures is a hybrid.There is clearly a very big difference as to how people in Indonesia deal with their identity. As Papastergiadis (2005) asserted in his paper that “cultural difference continues to be one of the most explosive geopolitical issues – people are dealing with it constantly in everyday life and artists are in their various ways exploring its complexity, and yet we have no coherent or satisfactory framework for addressing the moral and social problems that have been spawned in its name.” In this case, hybridity does not only encompass the international level justified by the neo-colonization. Even in a country like Indonesia which was subjected to a colonial rule also experiences hybridity on the regional and national spheres. It only intensifies the justification to the assertion that culture varies per location.According to Sumarsam (1988), the “geographical setting and their historical development, brought about Indonesia’s diversity of its people and cultures. Each of hundreds of ethnic groups and subgroups has its own local characteristic, in language, customs, and forms of organization, ritual, dances, music, and other cultural expressions.” This gives an implication that music, as part of culture, and identity, which defines what Indonesia is, has a very complex relationship. Their interplay is very complex given that there is also a strong cultural diversity existing in the whole archipelago. Jakarta, the capital has a different culture in comparison with Bali and Java.
Essentials of Indonesian Music Culture