Developed at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the tenth century, enlightenment has its roots in ancient times and takes after Greek philosophy and its principles designed by Thales, Anaximander, Anaxagoras, Socrates, Plato, and Aristotelian school of thought as its foundation. The enlightened thinkers and philosophers refute to bow before any authority that had its foundations on despotism, cruelty, social injustice, and inequality. Medieval and classical philosophers including Descartes, Machiavelli, Kant, Hobbes, Marx, Hegel, Locke, Voltaire, Nietzsche, Rousseau, Mill, Strauss, and others had great contributions in respect of illuminating the world by their valuable works, thought-provoking ideas, magnificent intellect, nd remarkable foresight. All these philosophers and thinkers have focused their attention on human liberty, freedom, and equality, and strived for individual respect and equal chances of growth for all members of society.Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are aptly regarded as the era of enlightenment not only in the tical scenario but also it incurred its influence in the socio-economic activities of the individuals at large. Since literature is the reflection, mirror, and imitation of real life, the influence of enlightenment can also be observed in the writings and creative pieces of writers, poets and philosophers of eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, where they have expressed their religious and spiritual beliefs and faith in an elegant, forceful and impressive way. The spirit of enlightenment could be declared as the spirit of observation and preoccupation with details and systematic analysis of facts, feelings, and ideas. In simple words, Dr. Mullik (1999) submits, it was the spirit of science popularized by such great men as Newton, Bacon, and Descartes. The writers, philosophers, and poets belonging to Romantic, Victorian, and Modern eras display their religious background in their works.
Enlightened Writers and Religion