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El Nio/La Nia ( weather)

Consequently, they affect the ocean activity and global weather and climate. Moreover, the two episodes of climate usually last from nine to twelve months. However, sometimes the episodes prolong and may even continue to two years. The usual time of beginning for the episodes is June and August (NOAA, 2013). A peak follows this that usually takes place between December and April. This is followed by a decline in the in the month of May and June of the subsequent year. The period of the episodes also varies but occurs mostly after every three to five years (NOAA, 2013). La Nino is a Spanish word meaning a little boy (NOAA, 2013). The history of this weather phenomena traces its root on the in the 1600s. At this time, the anglers in the coast of South America recognized it. The name was coined due to the appearance of strange warm water in the Pacific Ocean (NOAA, 2013). The name refers to the extensive ocean-atmosphere climate interaction linked to a periodic warming in the sea surface temperature (NOAA, 2013). This occurs across the central and east-central Equatorial Pacific. These effects are also likely to be experienced in other areas. On the other hand, La Nina incident represents periods of below average sea-surface temperatures crossways the east-central Equatorial Pacific (NOAA, 2013). The impact of this episode is the exact opposite of El Nino. A reflection on the weather episodes is of the essence in understanding how human is affected. Effects on Humanity Extreme Weather Patterns One of the ways the weather episodes has affected humanity is through extreme weather patterns. These events correlate with severe weather situation in different regions (World Health Organization (WHO), 2000). Moreover, there is also experience of a prolonged dry spell. Most of the regions that experience this episode include South-east Asia, southern Africa, and Northern Australia. On the other hand, some areas experience heavy rainfalls coupled with flooding in some areas. Such areas include Peru and Ecuador. The dry spell is because of weakened Asian monsoon that is pushed towards the equator in a typical El Nino (WHO, 2000). This is what cause drought and heavy rainfall in the northeast (WHO, 2000). In fact, El Nino effects appear rampant in areas where there are least resources. These areas include Southern Africa, parts of South America, and South East Asia. The effect leads to increased rates of famine in these areas. Disasters Moreover, the weather episodes lead to natural disasters. This has increased the number of people killed, injured, or made homeless. This is due to increased natural disasters. Some of the reason why this is rampant is due to concentration of the population in high-risk areas such as coastal zones and cities (WHO, 2000). These areas also continue to be faced with vulnerabilities due to extreme weather conditions while natural disasters are more extremes during El Nino time. Such examples of El Nino events took place in 1982-83 and 1997-98 (WHO, 2000). Moreover, El Nino results to more deaths due to weather related disasters such as floods and droughts. For example, in 1997, Central Ecuador and Peru suffered from severe amount of rainfall (WHO, 2000). In fact, lives were affected by floods and reduced food supplies (WHO, 2000). Moreover, most of the health facilities in Peru were destroyed due to the disastrous weather pattern. Besides, 1991-92 El Nino brought one of the worst droughts, and more than 100

El Nio/La Nia ( weather)