c. Reverse Discrimination This term refers to an accusation by a member of a majority group pointing out that they have been discriminated against because of factors such as gender or race. d. Wage Structure Refers to the different levels of salaries/wages according to job levels. It can also refer to the different pay levels for different employees or the manner in which the sum of the wage of workers is instituted. e. The Iron Triangle of Welfare This term is used to describe one of the bottlenecks that come with income redistribution. It points out that there isn’t a way to change a welfare program in order to achieve the welfare-program goals at the same time. f. AFDC This is an acronym for Aid to Families with Dependent Children. It is a welfare program that was designed to assist the disadvantaged sections of the population after the enactment of the Social Security Act. g. TANF This is an acronym for Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. It is a welfare program that is funded by the States and Federal government. It was designed to support families that fall in the low-income bracket and they have children. h. EITC This is one of the main programs that deal with offering a tax credit to citizens who don’t earn high-income in their jobs. The tax credit is refundable. i. FMLA This is an acronym for Family and Medical Leave Act. This particular program gives employees who qualify the opportunity to go on unpaid leave for specified reasons (medical or family) while the coverage of health insurance continues with identical terms and conditions. j. Statistical Discrimination This refers to a theory about the inequality in different demographic groups on account of stereotypes arising from factors other than race or gender. Group One Presentation – the role of women and men in different stages of history. Main points: Gender discrimination in contemporary/day-to-day practical activities with examples in perception, practice, and stereotypes. Roles in the pre-agrarian period with examples of roles allocated to men and women and common beliefs and practices. The emphasis that discrimination started 2 million years ago. Activities and changes that took place during this period. Not much information regarding the different roles is recorded during this period. This has been attributed to population pressure, ease in feeding livestock and religious reasons. Different gender roles during the industrialization period but in different and new forms that had previously not been experienced. Group 2 – Economic incentives of women in the labor market Main Points: Factors that contribute to the broader inclusion of women in the labor market for example monetary compensation, inflation. Factors that influence the choice of jobs and whether or not to be employed for women e.g. Marriage, having children. An analysis of women’s occupational standing. Factors that lead to women gaining more power in the family including more financial support, satisfaction from working and more purchasing power.
Economics of Race and Gender Questions