Varadero and Havana were the Rich and Famous’ resort and casinos, gambling as well as prostitution, were commonplace. Most Cubans particularly on the rural areas however lived in an environment of atrocious repression and they experienced extreme poverty, they were uneducated and there were many illnesses among them among them. Cuban dictator Batista was in power during this time and his regime was very cruel and the peasants greatly suffered under this very difficult political situation, which greatly concerned Fidel Castro and he started planning on overthrowing Batista’s dictatorship (Habanera, 1amp.2). The Cuban Revolution started with the Moncada Barracks’ failed attack by Fidel Castro together with his brother Raul, on July 26, 1953. Castro expected the soldiers of Batista to be inebriated and stuporous when his revolutionary’s band would surprise them at dawn. He had 160 men and prepared them to attack the barracks’ main post. However, they experienced a terrific failure at Moncada and Batista forces either killed or captured almost all of the rebels. Together with the members of his band, Fidel Castro was arrested and they underwent trial and were convicted. During his trial on October 16, 1953, Castro presented a famous speech entitled History Will Absolve Me as a legal defense of himself, which became a major revolutionary document (Faria, 4amp.9). Faria further explains that the presiding judge specifically sentenced them to be imprisoned in the terrible old fortress prison of La Cabana where they would serve a sentence of fifteen years. However, Ramon Hermida, the Cuban Minister of the Interior, directed that they be sent to the newest Modelo Prison where they were treated favorably as political prisoners. After two years only, Batista pardoned Castro and his conspirators in a general amnesty release as a sign of national reconciliation. His supporters welcomed him as a hero and he organized his followers and formed the 26th of July Movement, in remembrance of Moncada attacks, before running away to Mexico for his safety, where he started training an army in preparation to wage a guerilla war against his rival Batista (Jacob amp. Wong, 3). During the same time during which the 26th of July Movement was created, various groups also increased their endeavors against the government of Batista – groups such as those connected to the former political parties stepped up their efforts in opposition to the regime of Batista. Additionally, angry at the refusal of Batista to consent to new and just elections in the ‘Civic Dialogue’ that he had held with his democratic rivals, The University Student Federation established the secret Directorio Revolucionario, which would assist them to fight Batista’s government more violently and more directly. In Mexico, Castro and his brother brought together the 26th of July’s supporters and members abroad, who engaged themselves in training, collecting arms as well as raising money in preparation to attack Batista (Babun amp. Triay, 3). On December 2, 1956, in company with 82 others, Castro landed in Cuba using a small yacht called Granma. This was two days behind the schedule and a fighter plane that a naval frigate had set upon unfortunately spotted them, which forced them to dock at a swamp called Playa los Corolados (Babun amp. Triay, 4).
Cuban Revolution of 1959