Online Learning
CLICK HERE TO ORDER YOUR ASSIGNMENT

Chapter14

Essentials of Organizational Behavior, 14e (Robbins/Judge)Chapter 14
Conflict and Negotiation1) ________ is defined as a process that begins when one party perceives another party has or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about.A) Problem solvingB) AssessmentC) ConflictD) NegotiationE) Collective bargainingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Conflict is defined as a process that begins when one party perceives another party has or is about to negatively affect something the first party cares about.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.2) According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is ________.A) harmfulB) naturalC) necessaryD) healthyE) rationalAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The traditional approach to conflict assumed all conflict was bad and to be avoided. It was viewed negatively and discussed with such terms as violence, destruction, and irrationality to reinforce its negative connotation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.3) ________ conflict supports the goals of the group while ________ conflict hinders group performance.A) Interactionist; dysfunctionalB) Functional; dysfunctionalC) Dysfunctional; functionalD) Dysfunctional; interactionistE) Functional; interactionistAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Within the interactionist viewpoint, conflict can be both positive and negative.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.4) Which of the following would be an example of a functional conflict within an organization?A) Two coworkers trying to decide where to eat lunchB) Two coworkers trying to decide where to hold the staff retreatC) Two coworkers each trying to get the open managerial positionD) Two coworkers who were married getting a divorceE) Two coworkers each creating a new productAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A functional conflict supports the goals of the group, improves its performance, and is constructive. Working through determining the location of the retreat meets all of these needs.Diff: 2AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.5) According to a recent study, high levels of conflict between teams caused individuals to ________.A) exhibit high levels of counterproductive work behaviorsB) exhibit high levels of citizenship behaviorsC) exhibit hypercompetitive behaviorsD) exhibit higher levels of compliance with team normsE) exhibit higher levels of Dark Triad behaviorsAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When conflict between two or teams is occurring, the stress of the conflict can result in individuals holding fast to the values within their own specific teams.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.6) With reference to the interactionist view of conflict, conflict that relates to the content and goals of work is called ________ conflict.A) jobB) taskC) relationshipD) processE) communicationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels of task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. Task conflict is related to positive outcomes only when all members share the same goals and have high levels of trust.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.7) According to the interactionist view, ________ conflicts support the goals of the group and improve its performance.A) formalB) informalC) functionalD) dysfunctional E) reactive Answer:  CExplanation:  C) The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good. Rather, functional conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance and is, thus, a constructive form of conflict. A conflict that hinders group performance is a destructive or dysfunctional conflict.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.8) Which of the following statements is true regarding task conflicts?A) Task conflicts relate to how the work gets done.B) Task conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.C) Groups performing routine tasks won’t benefit from task conflict.D) Task conflict focuses on interpersonal relationships.E) Task conflicts hinder creativity and innovation.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels of task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. Task conflicts relate positively to creativity and innovation. Groups performing routine tasks that don’t require relativity won’t benefit from task conflict.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.9) When your work group disagrees, the disagreements usually concern how the group’s work should be accomplished. The type of conflict experienced by your group is ________.A) task conflictB) relationship conflictC) process conflictD) traditional conflictE) reactive conflictAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Process conflict relates to how the work gets done.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.10) You are a marketing director for a large food manufacturer. Lately, you have noticed that you are spending a great deal more time at work, sometimes 14 hours a day, because your best friend, who is head of product development, continues to ask you to serve on taste test panels for new products. Which type(s) of conflict are you experiencing?A) taskB) relationshipC) processD) both A and BE) all A, B, and CAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Your job is not to test new products; however, it is your relationship conflict which is causing you to spend more hours at work.Diff: 3AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.11) Some studies suggest that ________ levels of task conflict in the early development stages ________ creativity in groups.A) low; increasesB) moderate; increasesC) high; mitigatesD) moderate; decreasesE) low; decreasesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Moderate levels of conflict can increase creativity, but when conflict becomes too prominent, group performance is harmed.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.12) The interactionist view of conflict proposes that all conflicts are good.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  The interactionist view does not propose that all conflicts are good. It classifies conflicts as functional and dysfunctional. Functional conflict supports the goals of the group and improves its performance whereas dysfunctional conflict hinders group performance.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.13) For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept at moderate-to-high levels.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Process conflict relates to how the work gets done. For process conflict to be productive, it must be kept low. Intense arguments about who should do what become dysfunctional when they create uncertainty about task roles, increase the time to complete tasks, and lead to members working at cross-purposes.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.14) Relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Studies demonstrate that relationship conflicts are almost always dysfunctional. It appears that the friction and interpersonal hostilities inherent in relationship conflicts increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding, which hinders the completion of organizational tasks.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.15) Task conflicts can provide positive outcomes only when all members share the same goals and have high levels of trust.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Task conflict relates to the content and goals of the work. Low to moderate levels of task conflict stimulate discussion of ideas. Task conflicts can provide positive outcomes only when all members share the same goals and have high levels of trust.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.16) Members of the outgroup are better than those in the ingroup at resolving conflicts.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  Studies have shown that team members who are not at the core of the group are better able to resolve conflicts so long as they are still accountable to the group as a whole.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  SynthesisLO:  14.1 Describe the three types of conflict and the three loci of conflict.17) Conditions that can create conflicts can be classified into three categories. Which of the following is one of these three categories that includes variables such as jurisdictional clarity, member–goal compatibility, and leadership styles?A) communicationB) structureC) personal variablesD) group interactionsE) process variablesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The term structure in this context includes variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, member–goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems, and the degree of dependence between groups.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.18) Which of the following statements is true regarding conflict?A) The smaller the group, the greater the likelihood of conflict.B) The less specialized the activities of the group, the greater the likelihood of conflict.C) People low in the personality traits of disagreeableness, neuroticism, or self-monitoring are more likely to engage in a conflict.D) Diversity of goals among groups is a major source of conflict.E) As the ambiguity about where responsibility for actions lies decreases, the potential for conflict increases.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Diversity of goals among groups is a major source of conflict. People high in the personality traits of disagreeableness, neuroticism, or self-monitoring are more likely to engage in a conflict.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.19) Stage II of the conflict process deals with the conflict being ________.A) perceived and feltB) apparent and experiencedC) expressed and perceivedD) cooperative and assertiveE) accommodated and compromisedAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage. Because a conflict is a perceived conflict does not mean it is personalized. It is at the felt conflict level, when individuals become emotionally involved, that parties experience anxiety, tension, frustration, or hostility.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.20) The ________ stage of the conflict process is important because it’s where conflict issues tend to be defined.A) potential oppositionB) cognition and personalizationC) intuitionsD) behaviorE) reaction and transferenceAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The cognition and personalization stage of the conflict process is important because it’s where conflict issues tend to be defined. This is the point when the parties decide what the conflict is about.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.21) ________ is the third stage in the conflict process and it intervenes between people’s perceptions and their overt behavior.A) Potential for oppositionB) IntentionC) CognitionD) AttributionE) Behavioral manifestationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Intentions intervene between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. They are decisions to act in a given way.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.22) When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, that person is ________.A) competingB) avoidingC) accommodatingD) compromisingE) collaboratingAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, that person is competing.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.23) The conflict-handling techniques are characterized by two dimensions, cooperativeness and assertiveness. Cooperativeness indicates the degree to which ________.A) one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concernsB) one party attempts to suppress the conflictC) the parties attempt to find a win-win solutionD) one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concernsE) the parties are willing to involve third-party conflict resolution techniquesAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Cooperativeness indicates the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.24) Based on the dimensions of cooperativeness and assertiveness, the conflict-handling intentions are classified into five categories. Which of the following is not one of these five conflict-handling intentions?A) collaboratingB) competingC) accommodatingD) avoidingE) resistingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) We can identify five conflict-handling intentions: competing (assertive and uncooperative), collaborating (assertive and cooperative), avoiding (unassertive and uncooperative), accommodating (unassertive and cooperative), and compromising (midrange on both assertiveness and cooperativeness).Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.25) The conflict-handling intention of collaborating is ________.A) assertive and uncooperativeB) assertive and cooperativeC) unassertive and uncooperativeD) unassertive and cooperativeE) affective and reflectiveAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Collaborating intentions are assertive and cooperative.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.26) Which of the following conflict-handling intentions is unassertive and uncooperative?A) competingB) collaboratingC) avoidingD) compromisingE) accommodatingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Avoiding intentions are unassertive and uncooperative.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.27) The conflict-handling intention of accommodating is ________.A) assertive and uncooperativeB) assertive and cooperativeC) unassertive and uncooperativeD) unassertive and cooperativeE) reflective and assertiveAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Accommodating intentions are unassertive and cooperative.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.28) Which of the following conflict-handling intentions involves attempting to find a win-win solution?A) avoidingB) collaboratingC) accommodatingD) compromisingE) competingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In collaborating, the parties intend to solve a problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view. If you attempt to find a win-win solution that allows both parties’ goals to be completely achieved, that’s collaborating.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.29) Angelina feels that her cubicle neighbor talks loudly on the phone, but in other ways she is a great neighbor. Angelina gets annoyed every time her neighbor’s phone rings, but she has decided it’s simply not worth the trouble to talk to her neighbor. Angelina’s conflict-handling intention is called ________.A) competingB) avoidingC) accommodatingD) compromisingE) collaboratingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A person may recognize a conflict exists and want to withdraw from or suppress it. Examples of avoiding include trying to ignore a conflict and avoiding others with whom you disagree.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.30) Which of the following outcomes is not a dysfunctional consequence of conflict?A) dissolution of common tiesB) reassessment of group goalsC) destruction of the groupD) poor communicationE) reduced group cohesivenessAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The destructive consequences of conflict on the performance of a group or an organization are generally well known: uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. Among the undesirable consequences are poor communication, reductions in group cohesiveness, and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting among members. The creation of new ideas, reassessment of group goals and activities, and increase in the probability that the group will respond to change are functional outcomes of conflict.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.31) Irma does not agree with the standard operating procedures adapted for the new project. However, she discusses the items with the team and comes to know that she was in the minority. She has, therefore, decided to accept the new procedures to maintain smooth operations within the team. This type of intention is called ________.A) sacrificingB) accommodatingC) collaboratingD) compromisingE) competingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship. We refer to this intention as accommodating. Supporting someone else’s opinion despite your reservations about it, for example, is accommodating.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.32) The conflict-handling techniques are characterized by two dimensions, cooperativeness and assertiveness. Assertiveness indicates the degree to which ________.A) one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concernsB) one party attempts to suppress the conflictC) the parties attempt to find a win-win solutionD) one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concernsE) the parties are willing to involve third-party conflict resolution techniquesAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Assertiveness indicates the degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.33) Leah has found some ethical problems with the healthcare policy of her organization. She knows she is right in considering this as a vital issue to her organization’s welfare. She finds that others are taking advantage of her noncompetitive behavior. Which conflict-handling strategy should Leah select in this situation?A) competitionB) collaborationC) avoidanceD) accommodationE) compromiseAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Use competition when quick decisive action is needed (in emergencies), when issues are important, when unpopular actions need to be implemented (in cost cutting, enforcement of unpopular rules, discipline), when the issue is vital to the organization’s welfare and you know you’re right, and when others are taking advantage of noncompetitive behavior.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.34) Tyler has often been seen to be employing accommodation as his conflict-handling strategy. In which of the following situations would Tyler’s strategy be most suitable?A) when he perceives no chance of satisfying his concernsB) when an issue is trivial or symptomatic of other issuesC) when gathering information supersedes immediate decisionD) when others can resolve the conflict more effectivelyE) when harmony and stability are especially importantAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Use accommodation when you find you’re wrong, when you need to learn or show reasonableness, when you should allow a better position to be heard, when issues are more important to others than to yourself, when you want to satisfy others and maintain cooperation, when you can build social credits for later issues, when you are outmatched and losing (to minimize loss), when harmony and stability are especially important, and when employees can develop by learning from mistakes.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.35) A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship. We refer to this intention as ________.A) collaboratingB) avoidingC) compromisingD) competingE) accommodatingAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship. We refer to this intention as accommodating.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.36) Which of the following conflict-handling intentions involves accepting a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns?A) collaboratingB) compromisingC) avoidingD) competingE) accommodatingAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In compromising, there is no clear winner or loser. Rather, there is a willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.37) Evidence suggests that people tend to default to cooperative strategies in interpersonal interactions unless there is a clear signal that ________.A) they can “win” whatever argument is occurringB) they are faced with a competitive personC) they can advance their position/careerD) they can avoid a compromiseE) they can achieve a compromiseAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) If it is clear that the other individual is competitive, it is much less likely that a cooperative interaction will occur; thus, individuals skip trying to create such a situation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.38) Openness and collaboration are associated with ________ group performance; avoiding and competing strategies are associated with ________ group performance.A) high; highB) high; lowC) high; moderateD) moderate; lowE) low; lowAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) It is not just the existence of conflict or even the type of conflict that creates problems, but rather the ways people respond to conflict and manage the process once conflicts arise.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  AnalyticalLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.39) Which of the following statements is true regarding negotiation that takes place in a collectivist culture?A) Collectivists are less likely to seek to preserve relationships and promote the good of the group as a whole than individualists.B) Collectivists are more likely to confront differences of opinion directly and openly as compared to individualists.C) Competing tactics are the most preferred methods of conflict management in China.D) As compared to individualists, collectivists are less likely to see offers from their counterparts as unfair and to reject them.E) The methods of conflict management preferred by United States managers are avoiding and compromising.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Compared to collectivist culture negotiators, their more individualist counterparts are more likely to see offers from their counterparts as unfair and to reject them.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.40) Jennifer has come to realize that conflict has both functional, as well as dysfunctional, outcomes. She has observed examples of both in her organization. Last month, Jennifer’s department experienced constructive conflict during a meeting. Which of the following is not an outcome of this functional conflict?A) The quality of decisions is improved.B) Creativity and innovation are stimulated.C) Tensions are released.D) Groupthink is increased.E) Interest and curiosity are encouraged.Answer:  DExplanation:  D) Conflict is constructive when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity among group members, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. Conflict is an antidote for groupthink.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.41) What is the overall goal of conflict management?A) achieving the desired conflict levelB) resolving conflictC) stimulating conflictD) identifying conflictE) assessing the source of conflictAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Conflict management helps in achieving the desired level of conflict.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.42) In which stage of the conflict process does conflict become visible?A) outcomesB) intentionsC) incompatibilityD) behaviorE) personalizationAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When most people think of conflict situations, they tend to focus on Stage IV because this is where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes the statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties, usually as overt attempts to implement their own intentions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.43) ________ is an antidote for groupthink.A) PoliticsB) Distributive bargainingC) ConflictD) Integrative bargainingE) NegotiationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. It doesn’t allow the group to passively rubber-stamp decisions that may be based on weak assumptions, inadequate consideration of relevant alternatives, or other debilities. Conflict challenges the status quo and therefore furthers the creation of new ideas, promotes reassessment of group goals and activities, and increases the probability that the group will respond to change.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.44) Which of the following is not a possible result of felt conflict?A) anxietyB) tensionC) frustrationD) indifferenceE) hostilityAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) When individuals become emotionally involved, they start to experience heightened emotions.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.45) A Chinese manager is more likely to use which of the following techniques for conflict management?A) direct confrontationB) authoritative commandC) avoidingD) pressurizingE) competing tacticsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) To preserve peaceful relationships, collectivists will avoid direct expression of conflicts, preferring to use more indirect methods for resolving differences of opinion. Whereas United States managers are more likely to use competing tactics in the face of conflicts, compromising and avoiding are the most preferred methods of conflict management in China.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.46) The potential for conflict increases when too much communication takes place.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place. Apparently, an increase in communication is functional up to a point, after which it is possible to overcommunicate, with a resultant increase in the potential for conflict.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.47) During the intentions stage of the conflict process, the parties decide what the conflict is about.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  During the cognition and personalization stage, the parties decide what the conflict is about. The definition of a conflict is important because it typically delineates the set of possible settlements.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.48) The conflict-handling intention of accommodating is unassertive and cooperative.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  The conflict-handling intention of accommodating is unassertive and cooperative.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.49) What are the various causes of conflict?Answer:  The three general categories of conditions which may be the sources of conflict are communication, structure, and personal variables.a) Communication represents those opposing forces that arise from semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and “noise” in the communication channels. Differing word connotations, jargon, insufficient exchange of information, and noise in the communication channel are all barriers to communication and potential antecedent conditions to conflict. The potential for conflict increases when either too little or too much communication takes place.b) Structure includes variables such as size, degree of specialization in the tasks assigned to group members, jurisdictional clarity, member-goal compatibility, leadership styles, reward systems, and the degree of dependence between groups.c) Personal variables include individual value systems that each person has and the personality characteristics that account for individual idiosyncrasies and differences.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.50) Describe the five conflict-handling intentions that are based on the dimensions of cooperativeness and assertiveness.Answer:  The five conflict-handling intentions that are based on the dimensions of cooperativeness and assertiveness are:a) Competing: When one person seeks to satisfy his or her own interests, regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict, that person is competing.b) Collaborating: In collaborating, the intention of the parties is to solve the problem by clarifying differences rather than by accommodating various points of view.c) Avoiding: In avoiding, a person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it or suppress it.d) Accommodating: A party who seeks to appease an opponent may be willing to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own, sacrificing to maintain the relationship. We refer to this intention as accommodating.e) Compromising: In compromising, there is no clear winner or loser. Rather, there is a willingness to ration the object of the conflict and accept a solution that provides incomplete satisfaction of both parties’ concerns.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.51) Outline and discuss the conflict process.Answer:  The conflict process can be seen as comprising five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes.a) The first step in the conflict process is the presence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. They need not lead directly to conflict, but one of these conditions is necessary if conflict is to surface. These conditions are communication, structure, and personal variables. If the conditions cited in “Stage I” negatively affect something that one party cares about, then the potential for opposition or incompatibility becomes actualized in the second stage. The antecedent conditions can only lead to conflict when one or more of the parties are affected by, and aware of, the conflict.b) “Stage II” is cognition and personalization. This is where conflict issues tend to be defined.c) In “Stage III,” intentions intervene between people’s perceptions and emotions and their overt behavior. These intentions are decisions to act in a certain way.d) When most people think of conflict situations, they tend to focus on “Stage IV” because this is where conflicts become visible. The behavior stage includes statements, actions, and reactions made by the conflicting parties.e) The action-reaction interplay between the conflicting parties results in consequences. These outcomes in “Stage V” may be functional in that the conflict results in an improvement in the group’s performance, or dysfunctional in that it hinders group performance.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.52) What are the various functional outcomes of conflict?Answer:  Conflict is functional when it improves the quality of decisions, stimulates creativity and innovation, encourages interest and curiosity among group members, provides the medium through which problems can be aired and tensions released, and fosters an environment of self-evaluation and change. Conflict can improve the quality of decision making by allowing all points, particularly the ones that are unusual or held by a minority, to be weighed in important decisions. Conflict is an antidote for groupthink. It doesn’t allow the group passively to “rubber stamp” decisions that may be based on weak assumptions, inadequate consideration of relevant alternatives, or other debilities. Conflict challenges the status quo and therefore furthers the creation of new ideas, promotes reassessment of group goals and activities, and increases the probability that the group will respond to change.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.53) Describe the various dysfunctional outcomes of a conflict.Answer:  Dysfunctional conflicts can reduce group effectiveness. Uncontrolled opposition breeds discontent, which acts to dissolve common ties and eventually leads to the destruction of the group. More undesirable consequences are hampered communication, reductions in group cohesiveness, and subordination of group goals to the primacy of infighting among members. All forms of conflict—even the functional varieties—appear to reduce group member satisfaction and reduce trust. When active discussions turn into open conflicts between members, information sharing between members has been shown to decrease significantly. At the extreme, conflict can bring group functioning to a halt and threaten the group’s survival.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.54) Pauline has been asked to reorganize her department, eliminating at least two people within the office. Pauline has strong personal relationships with everyone in her office and being asked to complete this task is very hard on her. Thinking back to Stage Four of the conflict process, discuss one of the types of intentions with which Pauline might struggle in this situation.Answer:  Responses should either be avoidance or accommodate. In avoidance, the response should center around how Pauline might refuse to actually address the issue and thus harm the overall goals of the organization. In accommodate, the response should center around how Pauline might allow her relationships with those in her office to inhibit her ability to make the necessary decisions.Diff: 3AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.55) What can managers do to manage conflicts effectively in their organizations?Answer:  One common ingredient in organizations that successfully manage functional conflict is that they reward dissent and punish conflict avoiders. This is easier said than done. It takes discipline and patience to accept news you don’t wish to hear (from dissenters) and to force avoiders to speak up. Groups that resolve conflicts successfully discuss differences of opinion openly and are prepared to manage conflict when it arises. The most disruptive conflicts are those that are never addressed directly. An open discussion makes it much easier to develop a shared perception of the problems at hand; it also allows groups to work toward a mutually acceptable solution. Managers need to emphasize shared interests in resolving conflicts, so groups that disagree with one another don’t become too entrenched in their points of view and start to take the conflicts personally. Groups with cooperative conflict styles and a strong underlying identification to the overall group goals are more effective than groups with a more competitive style. Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  Critical ThinkingLO:  14.2 Outline the conflict process.56) Which of the following terms best describes the process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources?A) mediationB) conflict managementC) negotiationD) unionizationE) arbitrationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) We can define negotiation as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.57) Labor and management at DJ Trucking cannot agree upon a contract for the truck drivers. The drivers are threatening to strike, and management knows that such a strike would be very costly. Each side contends that they are bargaining fairly, but no agreement seems to be possible. Both sides agree that they are competing over a fixed amount of resources. Each side feels that what one side wins, the other loses. Based on this information we can say that the two sides are engaged in ________.A) conciliationB) distributive bargainingC) mediationD) integrative bargainingE) arbitrationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. When the pie is fixed, or parties believe it is, they tend to bargain distributively. Probably the most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is labor management negotiations over wages.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.58) Which of the following is a characteristic of distributive bargaining?A) win-win solutionB) long-term focusC) good interpersonal relationshipsD) opposed interestsE) high information sharingAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) In distributive bargaining, the interests of the parties are opposed. Win-win solution, long-term focus, good interpersonal relationships, and high information sharing are characteristics of integrative bargaining.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.59) You have decided to try to find a win-win situation to help labor and management resolve their differences. You are attempting to engage in ________.A) integrative bargainingB) conciliationC) mediationD) distributive bargainingE) arbitrationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) In integrative bargaining, the parties try to expand the pie so that both possible parties are satisfied and conclude with a win-win situation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Reflective thinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.60) At first, the disputing parties resist your offer to help create a win-win situation for both groups. They are each highly focused on their demands in the negotiation, otherwise known as their ________.A) focal pointsB) distribution pointsC) resistance pointsD) settlement rangesE) target pointsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) With distributive bargaining, each party has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable, or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.61) The terms negotiation and ________ are used interchangeably.A) mediationB) bargainingC) collaborationD) accommodatingE) arbitrationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Negotiation can be defined as a process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources. The terms negotiation and bargaining can be used interchangeably.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.62) The two general approaches to bargaining are known as ________ bargaining.A) emotional and rationalB) affective and reflectiveC) distributive and integrativeD) formal and informalE) reflexive and restrictiveAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) There are two general approaches to negotiation, distributive bargaining and integrative bargaining. In distributive bargaining negotiation seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources into a win-lose situation. With integrative bargaining negotiation seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.63) Which of the following statements is a condition necessary for integrative bargaining to succeed in organizations?A) Opposing parties must not be guarded about their concerns.B) Opposing parties must not be sensitive to others’ needs.C) Opposing parties must not trust each other.D) Opposing parties must not be open to sharing information.E) Opposing parties must not want to maintain flexibility.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) An important advantage of integrative negotiations is that even when you “win,” you want your opponent to feel good about the negotiation. Why, then, don’t we see more integrative bargaining in organizations? The answer lies in the conditions necessary for it to succeed. These include opposing parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns, are sensitive to the other’s needs and trust, and are willing to maintain flexibility.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.64) ________ bargaining is negotiation that seeks to divide a “fixed pie.”A) DistributiveB) IntegrativeC) ReflectiveD) AffectiveE) ConjunctiveAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Fixed pie refers to a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up. When the pie is fixed, or parties believe it is, they tend to bargain distributively.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.65) Emma is the labor union negotiator. Today, she is meeting with management to discuss the new five-year contract, including wages and benefits. This example of labor-management negotiations over wages exemplifies ________.A) integrative bargainingB) arbitrationC) distributive bargainingD) mediationE) conciliationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The most widely cited example of distributive bargaining is labor-management negotiations over wages.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.66) In the case of distributive bargaining, the ________ point indicates what a person would like to achieve out of a negotiation.A) resistanceB) clarificationC) targetD) closureE) focusAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) Each party in a negotiation has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable, or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.67) In case of distributive bargaining, the ________ point marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable—the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement.A) resistanceB) toleranceC) targetD) focalE) clarificationAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Each party in a negotiation has a target point that defines what he or she would like to achieve. Each also has a resistance point, which marks the lowest outcome that is acceptable, or the point below which the party would break off negotiations rather than accept a less favorable settlement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.68) Which of the following statements is true regarding distributive bargaining?A) It operates under zero-sum conditions.B) It focuses on long-term relationships.C) It involves high information sharing.D) It attempts to create a win-win solution.E) In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, distributive bargaining is preferable to integrative bargaining.Answer:  AExplanation:  A) Distributive bargaining operates under zero-sum conditions. The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.69) During a negotiation, making an initial offer leads to the ________ bias.A) self-servingB) framingC) attributionalD) anchoringE) cognitiveAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) During a negotiation, making an initial offer leads to the anchoring bias. People tend to fixate on initial information. Once that anchoring point is set, they fail to adequately adjust it based on subsequent information.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.70) All things being equal, ________ bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships.A) accommodativeB) transformationalC) integrativeD) collaborativeE) distributiveAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships. Integrative bargaining bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling they have achieved a victory. Distributive bargaining, however, leaves one party a loser.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.71) Which of the following statements is true regarding integrative bargaining?A) Integrative bargaining leaves one party a loser.B) Integrative bargaining makes the first offer, and makes it an aggressive one.C) Integrative bargaining focuses on long-term relationships.D) Integrative bargaining operates under zero-sum conditions.E) Integrative bargaining involves low information sharing.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Integrative bargaining involves high information sharing and attempts to create a win-win solution. In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.72) Distributive bargaining attempts to create a win-win solution for both the parties.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Distributive bargaining operates under zero-sum conditions. The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Distributive bargaining involves a win-lose situation.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.73) When you are engaged in distributive bargaining, research consistently shows one of the best things you can do is make the first offer.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  When you are engaged in distributive bargaining, research consistently shows one of the best things you can do is make the first offer. Making the first offer shows power and it leads to anchoring bias. People tend to fixate on initial information. Once that anchoring point is set, they fail to adequately adjust it based on subsequent information.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.74) In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining.Answer:  TRUEExplanation:  In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.75) Discuss distributive bargaining.Answer:  Distributive bargaining operates under zero-sum conditions. The essence of distributive bargaining is negotiating over who gets what share of a fixed pie. Here fixed pie means a set amount of goods or services to be divvied up. When the pie is fixed, or parties believe it is, they tend to bargain distributively. Parties involved in distributive bargaining have opposite interests. Distributive bargaining is characterized by low information sharing and it focuses on short term relationships. When you are engaged in distributive bargaining, research consistently shows one of the best things you can do is make the first offer. One reason for this is that making the first offer shows power; individuals in power are much more likely to make initial offers, speak first at meetings, and thereby gain the advantage. Another reason is the anchoring bias. People tend to fixate on initial information. Once that anchoring point is set, they fail to adequately adjust it based on subsequent information.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.76) What are the various characteristics of integrative bargaining?Answer:  Integrative bargaining attempts to create a win-win solution. The parties involved in integrative bargaining have congruent interests. Integrative bargaining is characterized by high information sharing and a long-term focus. To be successful, integrative bargaining needs parties who are open with information and candid about their concerns, a sensitivity in both parties to the other’s needs and trust, and a willingness by both parties to maintain flexibility. These conditions seldom exist in organizations therefore negotiations often take on a win-at-any-cost dynamic.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.77) In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, why is integrative bargaining preferable to distributive bargaining?Answer:  In terms of intraorganizational behavior, all things being equal, integrative bargaining is preferable to distributive bargaining because the former builds long-term relationships. Integrative bargaining bonds negotiators and allows them to leave the bargaining table feeling they have achieved a victory. Distributive bargaining, however, leaves one party a loser. It tends to build animosities and deepen divisions when people have to work together on an ongoing basis. Research shows that over repeated bargaining episodes, when the “losing” party feels positive about the negotiation outcome, he is much more likely to bargain cooperatively in subsequent negotiations. This points to an important advantage of integrative negotiations, even when you “win,” you want your opponent to feel good about the negotiation.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.3 Contrast distributive and integrative bargaining.78) In which of the five steps of the negotiation process do both parties have to undoubtedly make concessions?A) accommodatingB) compromisingC) bargainingD) clarifyingE) implementingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The essence of the negotiation process is the actual give-and-take in trying to hash out an agreement at the bargaining and problem solving step. This is where both parties will undoubtedly need to make concessions.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.79) Which of the following is not a step in the negotiation process?A) definition of ground rulesB) clarification and justificationC) bargaining and problem solvingD) process evaluationE) preparation and planningAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Negotiation is made up of five steps: (1) preparation and planning, (2) definition of ground rules, (3) clarification and justification, (4) bargaining and problem solving, and (5) closure and implementation.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.80) Your ________ determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement.A) BATNAB) margin of errorC) bid priceD) asking priceE) hidden valueAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) As part of your strategy, you should determine your and the other side’s best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA). Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.81) During which phase of the negotiation process do the parties exchange their initial proposals or demands?A) opening and initiatingB) definition of ground rulesC) clarification and justificationD) bargaining and problem-solvingE) integration of preferencesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) After planning and having developed a strategy, it is important to begin defining with the other party the ground rules and procedures of the negotiation itself. During this phase, the parties will also exchange their initial proposals or demands.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.82) In a negotiation process, which of the following activities is most likely to be included in the “preparation and planning” step?A) justifying your original demandsB) determining your best alternative to a negotiated agreementC) determining where the negotiation will take placeD) designing procedures for implementing the agreement that has been worked outE) exchange of the initial proposals or demandsAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) In a negotiation process, your best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) is determined during the “preparation and planning” step.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.83) Carisa is negotiating for the labor union. Today, she is presenting the evidence and papers that demonstrate the average wages in the area, the cost of health care for the average worker, and a pie graph demonstrating how these costs affect the new salary request. Which phase of the negotiation process is Carisa currently in?A) preparation and planningB) definition of ground rulesC) clarification and justificationD) bargaining and problem solvingE) closure and implementationAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The clarification and justification phase is the opportunity for both parties to explain, amplify, clarify, bolster, and justify their original demands. It’s an opportunity for educating and informing each other on the issues, why they are important, and how the initial demands were determined. At this point documentation that helps support each position is presented.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.84) In a negotiation process, which of the following activities is most likely to be included in the “closure and implementation” step?A) determining your best alternative to a negotiated agreementB) justifying your original demandsC) formalizing the agreement that has been worked outD) determining time constraints, if any, applicable to negotiationE) exchange of the initial proposals or demandsAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) The closure and implementation step is the final step in the negotiation process. It involves formalizing the agreement that has been worked out and developing any procedures necessary for implementation and monitoring.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.85) In a negotiation process, which of the following activities is most likely to be included in the “definition of ground rules” step?A) determining your best alternative to a negotiated agreementB) determining time constraints, if any, applicable to negotiationC) justifying your original demandsD) formalizing the agreement that has been worked outE) determining the history leading up to the negotiationAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Once you’ve done your planning and developed a strategy, you’re ready to begin defining with the other party the ground rules and procedures of the negotiation itself. Points, such as, who will do the negotiating, where will it take place, what time constraints, if any, will apply, are discussed during the “definition of ground rules” step.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.86) Negotiators with absolutely no alternative to a negotiated agreement sometimes ________.A) become hostile and end the negotiationB) become hostile and agree to whatever is offered to themC) adopt a “go for broke” mentalityD) adopt a “worst case scenario” mentalityE) seek out another party with whom to negotiateAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) When there is no other alternative, one might “go for broke” as they do not even consider what would happen if the negotiation falls through.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.87) The best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) determines the conflict-handling technique to be used during the negotiation process.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.88) What is BATNA? Discuss the significance of BATNA.Answer:  BATNA stands for best alternative to a negotiated agreement. During a negotiation process, each of the parties involved should develop their BATNA during the first stage of preparation and planning. Your BATNA determines the lowest value acceptable to you for a negotiated agreement. Any offer you receive that is higher than your BATNA is better than an impasse. Conversely, you shouldn’t expect success in your negotiation effort unless you’re able to make the other side an offer it finds more attractive than its BATNA. If you go into your negotiation having a good idea of what the other party’s BATNA is, even if you’re not able to meet it, you might be able to elicit a change.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.4 Apply the five steps of the negotiation process.89) Which of the following is not an individual factor that influences the effectiveness of a negotiator?A) personalityB) moodC) genderD) ageE) cultureAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) Four factors influence how effectively individuals negotiate: personality, mood/emotions, culture, and gender.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.90) Playbill, Inc. is a company that hires culturally diverse people to perform Shakespearean plays for high school students. The company employs actors and actresses from all over the world. The actors and actresses have joined together to ask Playbill for higher salaries. The employees are struggling over deciding who will negotiate for them. Which of the following statements is true pertaining to the effect of individual differences on negotiations?A) Women tend to negotiate better outcomes than men.B) Extraverts tend to be very successful in distributive bargaining.C) People who are highly interested in having positive relationships with other people are poor negotiators.D) Individuals who score high on agreeableness dimension tend to be very successful in distributive bargaining.E) Positive moods and emotions negatively affect integrative bargaining.Answer:  CExplanation:  C) Negotiators who are agreeable or extroverted are not very successful in distributive bargaining. People who are highly interested in having positive relationships with other people are poor negotiators. Men tend to negotiate better outcomes than women. Positive moods and emotions appear to lead to more integrative agreements.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.91) Caleb, a manager, always displays anger when he negotiates with his team members. Which type of bargaining is Caleb employing to induce concessions from his team?A) integrative bargainingB) collective bargainingC) distributive bargainingD) individual bargainingE) dysfunctional bargainingAnswer:  CExplanation:  C) In distributive negotiations, it appears that negotiators in a position of power or equal status who show anger negotiate better outcomes because their anger induces concessions from their opponents. Angry negotiators also feel more focused and assertive in striking a bargain.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.92) Those who believe they will be more successful in negotiation situations tend to ________.A) perform more effectivelyB) perform well but not greatC) overestimate their abilities and failD) underestimate their opponent and failE) forget to seek council from othersAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) Self-efficacy plays a large role in one’s ability to successfully negotiate.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.93) Studies have shown that there are some cultural differences in negotiation styles. Negotiators of which country are reported to have less trust in their negotiation counterparts?A) United StatesB) JapanC) Hong KongD) IndiaE) GermanyAnswer:  DExplanation:  D) One study looked at differences between United States and Indian negotiators. Indian respondents reported having less trust in their negotiation counterparts than did United States respondents. These lower levels of trust were associated with lower discovery of common interests between parties, which occurred because Indian negotiators were less willing to disclose and solicit information.Diff: 2AACSB:  Diverse and multicultural work environmentsQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.94) Men and women negotiate differently.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Men and women do not negotiate differently but gender does affect negotiation outcomes.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.95) People are better at advocating for themselves than they are advocating for others.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Research has shown that individuals are more successful when they are advocating for others.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.96) Discuss the effects of gender on effectiveness of negotiations.Answer:  A popular stereotype is that women are more cooperative and pleasant in negotiations than are men. The evidence doesn’t support this belief. However, men have been found to negotiate better outcomes than women, although the difference is relatively small. It’s been postulated that men and women place divergent values on outcomes. The belief that women are “nicer” than men in negotiations is probably due to a confusion between gender and the lower degree of power women typically hold in most large organizations. When women and men actually do conform to these stereotypes—women act “nice” and men “tough”—it becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy, reinforcing the stereotypical gender differences between male and female negotiators.Diff: 3AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.5 Show how individual differences influence negotiations.97) ________ in a negotiation process opens the door to many forms of integrative negotiation strategies that benefit both parties.A) KnowledgeB) TrustC) Communication skillsD) Secret informationE) AlliancesAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) When it comes to negotiation, having a reputation for being trustworthy matters.Diff: 2AACSB:  Interpersonal Relations and teamworkQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.6 Describe the social factors that influence negotiations.98) Please describe the various types of characteristics which help a person develop a trustworthy reputation.Answer:  A combination of competence and integrity. Negotiators higher in self-confidence and cognitive ability are seen as more competent by negotiation partners. They are also considered better able to accurately describe a situation and their own resources, and more credible when they make suggestions for creative solutions to impasses. Individuals who have a reputation for integrity can also be more effective in negotiations. They are seen as more likely to keep their promises and present information accurately, so others are more willing to accept their promises as part of a bargain. This opens many options for the negotiator that wouldn’t be available to someone who is not seen as trustworthy. Finally, individuals who have higher reputations are better liked and have more friends and allies–in other words, they have more social resources, which may give them more understood power in negotiations.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.6 Describe the social factors that influence negotiations.99) Mario owns a boutique furniture store for which Clinton is a long time supplier of pillows and decorative items. Because of repeated years of negotiations over prices, delivery dates, and products, Mario and Clinton have formed a mutually beneficial relationship. Please discuss some other outcomes of repeated negotiations.Answer:  Participating in repeated negotiations means that individuals go beyond valuing what is simply good for themselves and instead start to think about what is best for the other party and the relationship as a whole. Repeated negotiations built on a foundation of trust also broaden the range of options, since a favor or concession today can be offered in return for some repayment further down the road. Repeated negotiations also facilitate integrative problem solving. This occurs partly be-cause people begin to see their negotiation partners in a more personal way over time and come to share emotional bonds. Repeated negotiations also make integrative approaches more workable because a sense of trust and reliability has been built up.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.6 Describe the social factors that influence negotiations.100) Which of the following is not a characteristic or action of a mediator?A) use of reasoningB) use of persuasionC) suggestion of alternativesD) facilitation of solutionsE) use of compulsory tacticsAnswer:  EExplanation:  E) Mediators do not use compulsory, or forceful, tactics.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.101) When both parties are open to resolving their conflict, and the conflict intensity is not too high, which of the following is the most appropriate third-party to use?A) mediatorB) arbitratorC) conciliatorD) both A or BE) both A or CAnswer:  AExplanation:  A) A mediator is most appropriate in this situation because mediators work to bring the conflicting parties to their own conclusions. Mediators are best in low-intensity situations.Diff: 2AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.102) Which of the third-party negotiators has legitimate power?A) mediatorB) arbitratorC) conciliatorD) both A or BE) both A or CAnswer:  BExplanation:  B) Arbitration can be voluntary (requested by the parties) or compulsory (forced on the parties by law or contract).Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.103) To be effective, mediators must be rather forceful.Answer:  FALSEExplanation:  Mediators should be neutral and noncoercive.Diff: 1AACSB:  Analytical ThinkingQuest. Category:  ConceptLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.104) Please list and describe the three basic third-party roles.Answer:  A mediator is a neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning and persuasion, suggesting alternatives, and the like. An arbitrator is a third party with the authority to dictate an agreement. Arbitration can be voluntary (requested by the parties) or compulsory (forced on the parties by law or contract). Finally, a conciliator is a trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent.Diff: 2AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.105) Fonda is the owner of a popular farm-to-table restaurant in the community. Josue owns a sustainable farm and often supplies Fonda with fresh vegetables on a daily basis. Recently a second restaurant with a similar farm-to-table mission has opened and Josue is also working with this restaurant to supply vegetables; thus, the amount of vegetables that Fonda has been able to purchase has been lower. Josue just wants to help as many people as he can. Which of the third-party roles would you suggest to resolve this conflict between Fonda and Josue.Answer:  Responses to this question will vary and technically, any of the three choices will work; however, a mediator is the strongest choice because the conflict does not seem to be hostile and what needs to be created seems to be an agreement of exactly how many vegetables Josue will supply Fonda on a given day or schedule.Diff: 3AACSB:  Application of knowledgeQuest. Category:  ApplicationLO:  14.7 Assess the roles and functions of third-party negotiations.

Chapter14