Data will be analyzed by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 6 (SPSS, v.6). A 3-way ANOVA, group-time-calcium intake will be used to determine possible effects of interaction in BMD between training mode and dietary calcium from baseline to 9months while statistical significance will be set at p lt. .05 for all. I hypothesize that physical activity and intake of dietary calcium has a positive impact of stimulating osteocytes which detect mechanical strain, results in bone adaptation and increase BMD. This study will, therefore, help in developing an effective treatment option for osteoporosis and contribute to Saudi population-specific reference values for BMD measurements for purposes of accurate diagnosis. Low Bone Mass Density is a skeletal disorder that is characterized by a reduced strength of an individual bone’s density thus results in reduced strength predisposing an individual to an increased risk of fracture. Reduced bone mass density can be less severe and extreme severe depending on the stage of the disorder and can be classified as osteopenia which is less severe or osteoporosis which is more severe. Osteoporosis and osteopenia which are characterized by reduced BMD are an indication of decrease, structural deterioration as well as the loss of connectivity within the bone tissue resulting in increased.Earlier research has mainly focused on other risk factors rather than the lack of combination of dietary calcium and physical activity as the major risks of low BMD . National Consensus group on osteoporosis for the Middle East and North Africa as well as national Osteoporotic foundation of the United States of America had indicated that low physical activity, personal history of fractures, menopause, smoking cigarette, thin build, alcohol drinking, family history and glucocorticosteroid therapy, thyroid disease, rheumatoid history as the major risk factors.
Bone Mineral Density in Saudi Women Based on DXA Measurements