They are those that survive not only as beautiful objects but as testaments of the history of cultures, achievements that testify to the nature of society that produced them. In effect, these achievements are never wholly the work of individuals but of society. .
Up to the 18th century and well into the 19th century, architectural works reflected the deeply religious culture of human society. The noblest works were temples, mosques, and chapels. Architecture also helped to underscore and define the hierarchy prevalent in those times through the palaces and gardens created for people of ‘royal’ blood. By the turn of the 19th century, however, society began to transform because of the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution brought forth a multitude of advances. Guilds were replaced with factories. Wooden craft became almost obsolete as machines provided more efficiency. Developments with technology and materials were fast-paced. Modern architecture sought to reflect these developments as they felt that the 18th and early 19th-century architecture borrowed too heavily from the past or were too picturesque and eclectic. As the 20th century began, architects sought to invent architecture that would reflect the power of the machines and capture and convey its sleekness and energy. In this paper, we will see how architects came to envision a society where machines play an integral part of daily living in an urban city. Architects also sought to experiment with new ideas involving two materials- iron and concrete. Developments in these two materials actually formed the technological basis of modern architecture. Iron and concrete enabled construction previously unheard of one of which is the modular, detachable rooms forming a residential building in Japan to be shown and illustrated in the paper.