Culture is defined as being an integrated process of various learned behaviors that stem from society’s norms and social practices which are not produced by inherent biological factors (Henslin 2005). Culture is considered to be a set of shared values, beliefs, and norms that serve as an influence on how organizational members think and behave. Culture is also recognized as being common meanings and symbolism that build a set of shared social rules that govern the cognitive or emotional parameters of what constitutes group membership (Kunda 1992).Culture, according to Fullan (2001, p.166), is essential how the organization does things around here. Organizations, over time, establish certain behavioral and procedural norms and employees are expected to perform according to these established guidelines. This is referred to by Alvesson (2002) as cultural enculturation where employees with diverse cultural backgrounds and social ideologies are expected to conform to a singular set of values and beliefs, known as organizational culture. Organizational culture, as iterated by James and Connolly (2009), is a set of rules which dictate in-group membership within the organization that should be agreed upon by all organizational staff.The problem with the establishment of a cohesive organizational culture and achieving an agreement is why organizations should be considerate of cultural diversity. When organizations have many different employees sustaining radically different cultural beliefs and values, it can become difficult to build a singular culture that is cohesive and unified. For example, employees hailing from China come from a collectivist culture where loss of face (reputation) is considered unacceptable in front of others. In the same organization, employees from a country such as the United States are less considerate of this factor and are willing to accept more social risk in decision-making processes.
Analysis of Management of Culture Diversity in Hospitality Industry